Forms of energy & energy carriers

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Forms of energy

TypeDescription
KineticKinetic energy Is the energy of motion. The work needed to accelerate a body of a given mass from rest to its stated velocity.
PotentialPotential energy Is stored energy. Potential energy is the energy that an object has due to its position in a force field or that a system has due to the configuration of its parts.
ChemicalChemical energy is the energy contained in molecules
electricElectrical energy is the combination of electric current (movement) and electrical potential that is delivered by a circuit
MagneticMagnetic energy is the energy from magnetic fields
NuclearNuclear energy is the energy in the nucleus, or core, of an atom. It is the energy holds the nucleus together
HeatHeat or thermal energy refers to the internal energy present in a system by virtue of its temperature.
Mechanical workAn amount of energy being transferred in a given process due to displacement
in the direction of an applied force

Energy carriers - Examples

Primary energyConversionEnergy carrier
Crude oilRefineryFuel (oil, gasoline, etc)
Natural gasPower plantElctricity, enthalpy (fuel)
CoalPower plantElctricity, enthalpy
Natural uraniumPower plantElectricity
Solar energyPowerplant (photovoltaic)
Powerplant (thermal)
Electricity
Enthalpy
Wind energyPowerplant (wind turbines)Electricity
Tidal energyPower plant (hydro turbines)Electricity
Other water in motion (rivers, waterfalls)Power plant (hydro urbines)Electricity
BiomassPower plantElectricity, enthalphy
Geothermal energyPower plant (steam turbines)Electricity, enthalphy
Earth magnetic fieldNo practical applications
LighteningNo practical use
Note 1: There are various, slightly differentitating definitions of primary and secondary energy (energy sources) representing various scientific views, preferences and interpretations.
Note 2: There are many more examples of common energy carriers including: Springs, batteries, capacitors, water magazines, hydrogen and wood.

Spectrum of Electromagnetic Radiation

TypeWavelength
(Angstrom)
Wavelength
(centimeter)
Frequency
(Hz)
Energy
(eV)
Radio> 109> 10<3 x 109<10-5
Microwave109 - 10610 - 0,013 x 109 - 3 x 101210-5 - 0,01
Infrared106 - 70000.01 - 7 x 10-53 x 1012 - 4.3 x 10140,01 - 2
Visible7000 - 40007 x 10-5 - 4 x 10-54.3 x 104 - 7.5 x 10142 - 3
Ultraviolet4000 - 104 x 10-5 - 10-77.5 x 1014 - 3 x 10173 - 103
X-Rays10 - 0,110-7 - 10-93 x 1017 - 3 x 1019103 - 105
Gamma Rays< 0.1" <10-9> 3 x 1019> 105
Examples of wavelength and frequency for various types of electromagnetic radiation