Oil and gas use

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Content – Energy distribution

 


 
Use of oil and gas – hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons or oil and gas have a variety of areas for use as energy carrier as well as commodity for wide range of refined products. Some of those are:
  • Fuel (energy carriers)
    • Aviation
    • Automotive
    • Maritime
    • Heating and lightning
    • Electrical power generation
  • Petrochemical
  • Other
    • Lubricant
    • Vaxes
    • Polish
    • Paving and roofing (asphalt)
HydrocarbonFormulaAreas of use
MethaneCH4Gas – LPG, Domestic gas, Petrochemical feedstockNaptha – Petrochemical products
EthaneC2H6
PropaneC3H8
ButaneC4H10
PentaneC5H12Gasoline
HexaneC6H14
HeptaneC7H16
OctaneC8H18
NonaneC9H20
DecaneC10H22Kerosene – Jet fuel, Kerosene for heating and lightning
HendecaneC11H24
DodecanC12H26
TridecanC13H28
TetradecanC14H30Diesel – Diesel fuels
PentadecaneC15H32
HexadecaneC16H34
HeptadecaneC17H36
OctadecaneC18H38
NonadecaneC19H40
ElcosaneC20-C42Hn
C20-C50HnLubricants – Lubricant waxes, Polish
C20C70HnHeavy fuel oil – Bunker fuel, Boilers
>C70HnBitumen Asphalt – Roads and roofing

Petrochemical
Petrochemical plants produce a huge variety of compounds based on hydrocarbons (petroleum or natural gas). The main feedstock is natural gas, condensates or other refinery by products including; naptha, gasoil, benzene, etc.

The three main plant and product groups are:

  • Olefins, ethylene, propylene, and butadiene. These are the main sources of plastics (polyethylene, polyester, PVC), industrial chemicals and synthetic rubber.
  • Aromatics, benzene, toluene, and xylenes, which also are a source of plastics (polyurethane, polystyrene, acrylates, nylon), as well as synthetic detergents and dyes.
  • Synthesis gas (syngas), steam reforming creates a mixture of carbon monoxide (and some carbon dioxide) and hydrogen from various hydrocarbon feedstocks. Natural gas and in particular methane is used. The hydrogen is used to make ammonia, e.g., for fertilizer urea, and methanol as a solvent and chemical intermediary. Syngas is an imortant feedstock for produceing synthetic fuels. Syngas is combustible and may also be used as a fule for combustion engines but the energy density is less than the energy density of natural gas.