Oil and gas use


Content – Oil & Gas


Use of oil and gas – hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons or oil and gas have a variety of areas for use as energy carrier as well as commodity for wide range of refined products. Some of those are:

  • Fuel (energy carriers)
    • Aviation
    • Automotive
    • Maritime
    • Heating and lightning
    • Electrical power generation
  • Petrochemical
  • Other
    • Lubricant
    • Vaxes
    • Polish
    • Paving and roofing (asphalt)
Hydrocarbon Formula Areas of use
Methane CH4 Gas – LPG, Domestic gas, Petrochemical feedstock Naptha – Petrochemical products
Ethane C2H6
Propane C3H8
Butane C4H10
Pentane C5H12 Gasoline
Hexane C6H14
Heptane C7H16
Octane C8H18
Nonane C9H20
Decane C10H22 Kerosene – Jet fuel, Kerosene for heating and lightning
Hendecane C11H24
Dodecan C12H26
Tridecan C13H28
Tetradecan C14H30 Diesel – Diesel fuels
Pentadecane C15H32
Hexadecane C16H34
Heptadecane C17H36
Octadecane C18H38
Nonadecane C19H40
Elcosane C20-C42Hn
C20-C50Hn Lubricants – Lubricant waxes, Polish
C20C70Hn Heavy fuel oil – Bunker fuel, Boilers
>C70Hn Bitumen Asphalt – Roads and roofing

Petrochemical plants produce a huge variety of compounds based on hydrocarbons (petroleum or natural gas). The main feedstock is natural gas, condensates or other refinery by products including; naptha, gasoil, benzene, etc.

The three main plant and product groups are:

  • Olefins, ethylene, propylene, and butadiene. These are the main sources of plastics (polyethylene, polyester, PVC), industrial chemicals and synthetic rubber.
  • Aromatics, benzene, toluene, and xylenes, which also are a source of plastics (polyurethane, polystyrene, acrylates, nylon), as well as synthetic detergents and dyes.
  • Synthesis gas (syngas), steam reforming creates a mixture of carbon monoxide (and some carbon dioxide) and hydrogen from various hydrocarbon feedstocks. Natural gas and in particular methane is used. The hydrogen is used to make ammonia, e.g., for fertilizer urea, and methanol as a solvent and chemical intermediary. Syngas is an imortant feedstock for produceing synthetic fuels. Syngas is combustible and may also be used as a fule for combustion engines but the energy density is less than the energy density of natural gas.