Content – Energy distribution
Use of oil and gas – hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons or oil and gas have a variety of areas for use as energy carrier as well as commodity for wide range of refined products. Some of those are:
- Fuel (energy carriers)
- Heating and lightning
- Electrical power generation
- Paving and roofing (asphalt)
|Hydrocarbon||Formula||Areas of use|
|Methane||CH4||Gas – LPG, Domestic gas, Petrochemical feedstock||Naptha – Petrochemical products|
|Decane||C10H22||Kerosene – Jet fuel, Kerosene for heating and lightning|
|Tetradecan||C14H30||Diesel – Diesel fuels|
|C20-C50Hn||Lubricants – Lubricant waxes, Polish|
|C20C70Hn||Heavy fuel oil – Bunker fuel, Boilers|
|>C70Hn||Bitumen Asphalt – Roads and roofing|
Petrochemical plants produce a huge variety of compounds based on hydrocarbons (petroleum or natural gas). The main feedstock is natural gas, condensates or other refinery by products including; naptha, gasoil, benzene, etc.
The three main plant and product groups are:
- Olefins, ethylene, propylene, and butadiene. These are the main sources of plastics (polyethylene, polyester, PVC), industrial chemicals and synthetic rubber.
- Aromatics, benzene, toluene, and xylenes, which also are a source of plastics (polyurethane, polystyrene, acrylates, nylon), as well as synthetic detergents and dyes.
- Synthesis gas (syngas), steam reforming creates a mixture of carbon monoxide (and some carbon dioxide) and hydrogen from various hydrocarbon feedstocks. Natural gas and in particular methane is used. The hydrogen is used to make ammonia, e.g., for fertilizer urea, and methanol as a solvent and chemical intermediary. Syngas is an imortant feedstock for produceing synthetic fuels. Syngas is combustible and may also be used as a fule for combustion engines but the energy density is less than the energy density of natural gas.